TECHNOLOGY DICTIONARY

TECHNOLOGY DICTIONARY

A

ADSL

Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a character-encoding scheme based on the ordering of the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use a

ATM

An automated teller machine (ATM) or the automatic banking machine (ABM) is a computerized telecommunications device that provides the clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public space without the need for a cashier, human clerk or bank teller.

Ajax

Ajax (shorthand for asynchronous JavaScript and XML[1]) is a group of interrelated web development techniques used on the client-side to create interactive web applications

API

An application programming interface (API) is an interface implemented by a software program to enable interaction with other software, much in the same way that a user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers.

B

Bandwidth

bandwidth is a measure of available or consumed data communication resources expressed in bit/s or multiples of it (kbit/s, Mbit/s etc).

Browser

browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.

Byte

The byte (pronounced /ˈbaɪt/) is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications. It is an ordered collection of bits, in which each bit denotes the binary value of 1 or 0. Historically, a byte was the number of bits (typically 6,7,8, or 9) used to encode a character of text in a computer[1][2] and it is for this reason the basic addressable element in many computer architectures

Bit

A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and telecommunications; it is the maximum amount of information that can be stored by a device or other physical system that can normally exist in only two distinct states.

C

Cache Memory

A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main memory locations.

CD

is an optical disc used to store digital data. It was originally developed to store sound recordings exclusively, but later it also allowed the preservation of other types of data.

CRT

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source of electrons) and a fluorescent screen, with internal or external means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam, used to create images in the form of light emitted from the fluorescent screen.

Cartridge

is a replaceable component of an ink jet printer that contains the ink (and sometimes the print-head itself) that is spread on paper during printing.

CGI

Computer-generated imagery[1] (also known as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics or, more specifically, 3D computer graphics to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media.

Client

A client is an application or system that accesses a remote service on another computer system, known as a server, by way of a network.[1

Cookie

In computing, a cookie (also tracking cookie, browser cookie, and HTTP cookie) is a small piece of text stored on a user’s computer by a web browser.

CPU

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or the processor is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer’s functions.

CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (that is, the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language.

D

DBMS

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of the database with computer as a platform or of an organization and its end users

DoS

A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users

DNS

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network.

DOS

DOS, short for “Disk Operating System”,[1] is a shorthand term for several closely related operating systems that dominated the IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995, or until about 2000 if one includes the partially DOS-based Microsoft Windows versions 95, 98, and Millenium Edition.

Desktop

In graphical computing, a desktop environment (DE) commonly refers to a style of graphical user interface (GUI) that is based on the desktop metaphor which can be seen on most modern personal computers today

Dot Matrik

A dot matrix is a 2-dimensional array of dots used to represent characters, symbols and images.Typically the dot matrix is used in older computer printers and many digital display devices.

DVD

DVD, also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc, is an optical disc storage media format, and was invented in 1995. Its main uses are video and data storage. DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs), but store more than six times as much data.

E

Encrypt

In cryptography, encryption is the process of transforming information (referred to as plaintext) using an algorithm (called cipher) to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key.

Extranet

An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organization’s information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers or other businesses.

E-mail

Electronic mail, often abbreviated as email, e.mail or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages.

EFT

Electronic funds transfer or EFT refers to the computer-based systems used to perform financial transactions electronically.

EDI

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) refers to the structured transmission of data between organizations by electronic means. It is used to transfer electronic documents from one computer system to another, i.e. from one trading partner to another trading partner.

F

FTP

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to exchange and manipulate files over a TCP/IP based network, such as the Internet.

Flopy Disk

A floppy disk is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (“floppy”) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell.

G

Gateway

A gateway may contain devices such as protocol translators, impedance matching devices, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal translators as necessary to provide system interoperability. It also requires the establishment of mutually acceptable administrative procedures between both networks.

GPS

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based global navigation satellite system. It provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather, day and night, anywhere on or near the Earth.

Graphic Card

is an expansion card whose function is to generate and output images to a display

Google

Google Inc. is an American public corporation specializing in Internet search.

H

Hardware

Hardware is a general term for the physical artifacts of a technology. It may also mean the physical components of a computer system, in the form of computer hardware.

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.

Hardisk

Hardisk is a general category of a computer storage mechanisms, in which data is recorded on planar, round and rotating surfaces (disks, discs, or platters)

Headset

Headphones are a pair of small loudspeakers, or less commonly a single speaker, with a way of holding them close to a user’s ears and a means of connecting them to a signal source such as an audio amplifier, radio or CD player.

HTML

HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists etc as well as for links, quotes, and other items.

I

IDE (Integrated Device Electronics) :

is an interface for disk drives in which the control electronics reside on the device itself.

Information System: system consisting of the network of all communication channels used within an organization.

Interface:

(computer science) computer circuit consisting of the hardware and associated circuitry that links one device with another (especially a computer and a hard disk drive or other peripherals)

Internet:

an international information network linking computers, accessible to the public via modem links.

Internet Service Provider:a business that provides access to the Internet, usually for a monthly fee. Some large providers offer users a wide range of news, information, and entertainment services.

Interrupt:An interrupt is a signal that tells a program, or the CPU, that an event has occurred. Interrupts are generated by applications (software interrupts) and devices (hardware interrupts).

Intranet:a restricted computer network; a private network created using World Wide Web software.

ISDN(Integrated Services Digital Network): a telecommunications network through which sound, images, and data can be transmitted as digitized signals.

ITU Short for International Telecommunication Union,

ITU is an international telecommunication standards-setting body based in Geneva, Switzerland. ITU is the United Nations agency responsible for adopting international treaties, regulations, and standards governing telecommunications..

J

JAVA : a simple platform-independent object-oriented programming language used for writing applets that are downloaded from the World Wide Web by a client and run on the client’s machine

JAVA SCRPIT : JavaScript is an interpreted, client-side scripting language developed by Netscape. All major browsers offer built-in support for JavaScript, and can interpret blocks of JavaScript code embedded in an HTML page. An international open standard called ECMAScript is based on JavaScript.

JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group. JPEG is an open standard that defines a method of compressing still images.

K

Kbps:

kilobits per second. A term that identifies the rate at which information travels down a physical medium or through space (wireless). Kbps is equivalent to 1,000 bits per second. 56Kbps is equivalent to 56,000 bits per second.

KERNEL : The kernel is the essential center, or core, of a computer operating system; it provides basic services for all other parts of the operating system. The term “nucleus” is a synonym for “kernel”. A kernel can be contrasted with a shell, the outermost part of an operating system that interacts with user commands.

Keyboard :

The set of typewriter-like keys that enables you to enter data into a computer. Computer keyboards are similar to electric-typewriter keyboards but contain additional keys. The keys on computer keyboards are often classified as follows:

  alphanumeric keys — letters and numbers

  punctuation keys — comma, period, semicolon, and so on.

  special keys –function keys, control keys, arrow keys, Caps Lock key,&so on.

L

LAN : a local computer network for communication between computers; especially a network connecting computers and word processors and other electronic office equipment to create a communication system between offices

Laptop: a portable microcomputer suitable for use while travelling.

Linux: an open-source version of the UNIX operating system

Login:

The process of identifying oneself to a computer, usually by entering one’s username and password.

M

MAC OS: Mac OS is Apple’s OS for its Macintosh desktop computers and high-powered servers. Mac OS only runs on the Apple PowerPC processor, which was specifically designed to provide superior handling of images, color, and sound.

Mainframe: 1 a large high-speed computer, especially one supporting numerous workstations. 2 the central processing unit and primary memory of a computer.

Memory: a computer’s equipment or capacity for storing data or program instructions for retrieval.

Message :In data communications, a message is a sequence of characters used to convey information. The term message is usually used in conjunction with the Transport Layer of the OSI model referring to the complete unit of information being transmitted from one node to another.

Metropolitan area network (MAN) : MANs are evolving and will be developed by data carriers to connect LANs in the same city. LANs extend across a single site and consist of one or more subnets, which are usually, but not necessarily, homogeneous. WANs are often heterogeneous and cover many sites, spanning large corporations and sometimes continents.

Microcomputer: a small digital computer based on a microprocessor and designed to be used by one person at a time.

Microprocessor: integrated circuit semiconductor chip that performs the bulk of the processing and controls the parts of a system.

Modem: a device for interconverting digital and analogue signals, especially to enable a computer to be connected to a telephone line.

Motherboard: The main board of a computer, usually containing the circuitry for the central processing unit, keyboard, and monitor and often having slots for accepting additional circuitry.

Mouse: a hand-operated electronic device that controls the coordinates of a cursor on your computer screen as you move it around on a pad; on the bottom of the mouse is a ball that rolls on the surface of the pad.

MySQL : is a flexible and reliable open-source server application that uses Structured Query Language (SQL) for accessing and managing relational database information. Used as an alternative to proprietary database systems, My SQL can be customized to suit the needs of the user.

N

Network: A network is a number of computers that are combined to share information or exchange data

NOS: is the software that manages server operations and provides services to clients. The NOS manages the interface between the network’s underlying transport capabilities and the applications resident on the server.

NSP (Network Service Provider): A network service provider is a company that provides network services, such as Internet access, frame relay, and ATM through its own private network infrastructure.

NTFS: New Technology File System.

NTFS is a file system designed specifically for the Windows NT OS. It supports long file names, file system recovery, large storage media, and full security access control.

O

Open Source: Open-source software is software that may be used and redistributed without paying a licensing fee, and includes a copy of its source code. Vendors may sell distributions that include both the open-source software and their own added- value components (including technical support). Open-source software is popular with large organizations that often need to customize an application or OS. See freeware.

Operating System:

software that controls the execution of computer programs and may provide various services

Optical Character Reader: A device used for optical character recognition.

OSI : Short for Open System Interconnection, OSI began as a reference model, that is, an abstract model for data communications. However, now the OSI model has been implemented and is used in some data communications applications. The OSI model, consisting of seven layers, falls logically into two parts. Layers 1 through 4, the “lower” layers, are concerned with the communication of raw data. Layers 5 through 7, the “higher” layers, are concerned with the networking of applications.

P

Packet:

A packet is a unit of information processed by the Network Layer of the OSI reference model. The packet header contains the logical (network) address of the destination node. Intermediate nodes forward a packet until it reaches its destination. A packet can contain an entire message generated by higher OSI layers, or a segment of a much larger message. IP packets are also referred to as datagrams.

Peer to Peer: Two programs or processes that use the same protocol to communicate and perform approximately the same function for their respective nodes are referred to as peer processes. With peer processes, in general, neither process controls the other, and the same protocol is used for data flowing in either direction. Communication between them is referred to as “peer- to-peer.”

PHP :is a popular open source, server-side scripting language that is especially suited for creating Web sites featuring dynamic content and complex web applications.

Printer: A device that prints text or illustrations on paper.

Processor: the part of a computer (a microprocessor chip) that does most of the data processing; the CPU and the memory form the central part of a computer to which the peripherals are attached

Q

Queued packet synchronous exchange (QPSX) :

QPSX is the predecessor to DQDB, a protocol for communications over MANs.

R

Rendering

Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model, by means of computer programs. The model is a description of three-dimensional objects in a strictly defined language or data structure.

RepeaterA repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances.

Response time

In technology, response time is the time a system or functional unit takes to react to a given input.

Router

Router is an electronic device used to connect two or more computers or other electronic devices to each other, and usually to the Internet, by wire or radio signals.

S

Server

A server computer, sometimes called an enterprise server, is a computer system that provides essential services across a network, to private users inside a large organization or to public users in the internet.

Shareware

The term shareware, popularized by Bob Wallace,[1] refers to proprietary software that is provided to users without payment on a trial basis and is often limited by any combination of functionality, availability or convenience.

SO-DIMM

A SO-DIMM, or small outline dual in-line memory module, is a type of computer memory built using integrated circuits.SO-DIMMs (also written SODIMMs) are a smaller alternative to a DIMM,

Software

Computer software, or just software is a general term primarily used for digitally stored data such as computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by computers.

Solid-State Drive

A solid-state drive (SSD) is a data storage device that uses solid-state memory to store persistent data. An SSD emulates a hard disk drive interface, thus easily replacing it in most applications.

Spreadsheet

A spreadsheet is a computer application that simulates a paper, accounting worksheet. It displays multiple cells that together make up a grid consisting of rows and columns, each cell containing either alphanumeric text or numeric values.

T

TFT-LCDthin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) is a variant of liquid crystal display (LCD) which uses thin-film transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality (e.g., addressability, contrast).

Thumbnails

Thumbnails are reduced-size versions of pictures, used to help in recognizing and organizing them, serving the same role for images as a normal text index does for words.

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting is a form of problem solving most often applied to repair of failed products or processes.

U

USB

USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a specification[1] to establish communication between devices and a host controller (usually personal computers).

UTP

UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cable is not surrounded by any shielding. It is the primary wire type for telephone usage and is very common for computer networking, especially as patch cables or temporary network connections due to the high flexibility of the cables.

V

VAN

A Value-added Network (VAN) is a hosted service offering that acts as an intermediary between business partners sharing standards based or proprietary data via shared Business Processes.

VGA

Video Graphics Array (VGA) was the last graphical standard introduced by IBM that the majority of PC clone manufacturers conformed to, making it today (as of 2009) the lowest common denominator that all PC graphics hardware supports, before a device-specific driver is loaded into the computer.

VPN

A VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a computer network that is implemented in an additional software layer (overlay) on top of an existing larger network for the purpose of creating a private scope of computer communications or providing a secure extension of a private network into an insecure network such as the Internet.

W

WAN

A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries [1]).

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi (pronounced /ˈwaɪfaɪ/) is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance that may be used with certified products that belong to a class of wireless local area ntwork (WLAN) devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards

X

XHTML

XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language) is a family of XML markup languages that mirror or extend versions of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the language in which web pages are written.

X-Band

The X-band is a segment of the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In some cases, such as in communication engineering, the frequency range of X-band is rather indefinitely set at approximately 7.0 to 11.2 gigahertz (GHz). In radar engineering, the frequency range is specified by the IEEE at 8.0 to 12.0 GHz.

The term “X-band” is also used informally and inaccurately to refer to the extended AM broadcast band, where the “X” stands for “extended”.

Y

Yahoo

Yahoo! Inc. is an American public corporation headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, (in Silicon Valley), that provides Internet services worldwide. The company is perhaps best known for its web portal, search engine (Yahoo! Search), Yahoo! Directory, Yahoo! Mail, Yahoo! News, advertising, online mapping (Yahoo! Maps), video sharing (Yahoo! Video), and social media websites and services.

Yahoo! was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on March 1, 1995.

Youtube

YouTube is a video sharing website on which users can upload and share videos. Three former PayPal employees created YouTube in February 2005.[1] In November 2006,

Z

ZIP

The ZIP file format is a data compression and archive format. A ZIP file contains one or more files that have been compressed to reduce file size, or stored as-is. The ZIP file format permits a number of compression algorithms but, as of 2009[update], the Deflate method continues to be dominant.

Zip Drive

The Zip drive is a medium-capacity removable disk storage system, introduced by Iomega in late 1994. Originally, Zip disks launched with capacities of only 100 MB, but later versions increased this to first 250 MB and then 750 MB.

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